September 30, 2014

Pasternak: A Great Translator Reflects on Translation


Pasternak: A Great Translator Reflects on Translation

On this side of the Atlantic, Boris Pasternak is known as a writer and a poet, and specifically as the author of Doctor Zhivago. But in Russia he is also recognized for his translations from English. When Russians quote Shakespeare, they are speaking Pasternak’s verses. And so, for the International Day of the Translator (September 30), let’s see what one of Russia’s greatest translators has to say about translation – and what admiring praise he gives to the English language.

Excerpt from A Translator’s Notes, 1944

Anthologies of foreign literature are typically begun by choosing originals to which the necessary translations are then sought. Our editor, A.I. Startsev, started from the opposite end, taking already existing results as a point of departure. The compilation is based on a trove of the best Russian translations in a century and a half, from Zhukovsky on, with no regard for whether these best examples of the Russian genius correspond to the best strokes of the English one.

By chance, this choice confirmed our long-held belief: translations have no meaning unless their connection to their originals is much closer than usual. A textual correspondence forms too weak a link to render the translation practical. Such translations do not fulfill their promises. Their feeble paraphrases give no sense of the main aspect of that which they aim to reflect – its power. For a translation to achieve its purpose, it must be tied to its original by a more substantial dependency. The relationship between the original and the translation must be that of a basis and its derivative, a trunk and its branch. The translation must come from an author who felt the original’s influence long before taking up his task. It must be the fruit of the original, and its historical consequence.

This is why imitations and borrowings, elements of style and examples of foreign influence bring us closer to the world of European originals than their direct copy. A picture of such influences – that is what this compilation is. The anthology paints English poetry from the perspective of the power we have felt in it. It shows English poetry in its Russian performance. This corresponds profoundly to the very idea of translation, its very purpose.

We have already stated that translations are unfeasible, as the greatest beauty of a literary work is its originality. How can that beauty be repeated in translation?

And yet, we can conceive of translations, because ideally they must be literary works in their own right and, through textual equivalence, stand shoulder to shoulder with their source texts, in their own originality. We can conceive of translations because for centuries entire literatures have translated each other, and translations are not a method for becoming acquainted with individual works – they are a means of perpetual communication between cultures and peoples.

The potential of English meter is limitless. English words have fewer syllables, offering a multitude of opportunities for poetic diction. The English phrase is concise, and therefore meaningful; it is meaningful, and therefore musical, as the music of a word is not in its sonority, but in the relationship between its sound and its meaning. In that sense English poetry is astoundingly musical.

There was a time when we could not ascribe Pushkin and Lermontov’s English obsession to Byron’s ideological influence. Their infatuation always seemed to us to have some other evanescent cause. Later, in our modest introduction to Keats and Swinburne, we were arrested by the same enigma. The enormity of our rapture was not contained by their own allure. In their influence we sensed the same secret, repeating component. Long had we attributed this phenomenon to the appeal of English speech itself and the advantages it offered to English lyrical forms. We were mistaken. The mysterious component that provides extra charm to each English line is the invisible presence of Shakespeare, and his influence on a vast majority of the most common and typical English devices and turns of phrase.

...

Translation: Eugenia Sokolskaya

Photo: all-photo.ru

You Might Also Like

Happy Translation Day
  • September 30, 2013

Happy Translation Day

In honor of International Translation Day (September 30), we demonstrate rather graphically the value of having a good, human translator.
Like this post? Get a weekly email digest + member-only deals

Some of Our Books

Steppe / Степь

Steppe / Степь

This is the work that made Chekhov, launching his career as a writer and playwright of national and international renown. Retranslated and updated, this new bilingual edition is a super way to improve your Russian.
The Moscow Eccentric

The Moscow Eccentric

Advance reviewers are calling this new translation "a coup" and "a remarkable achievement." This rediscovered gem of a novel by one of Russia's finest writers explores some of the thorniest issues of the early twentieth century.
Maria's War: A Soldier's Autobiography

Maria's War: A Soldier's Autobiography

This astonishingly gripping autobiography by the founder of the Russian Women’s Death Battallion in World War I is an eye-opening documentary of life before, during and after the Bolshevik Revolution.
Murder and the Muse

Murder and the Muse

KGB Chief Andropov has tapped Matyushkin to solve a brazen jewel heist from Picasso’s wife at the posh Metropole Hotel. But when the case bleeds over into murder, machinations, and international intrigue, not everyone is eager to see where the clues might lead.
22 Russian Crosswords

22 Russian Crosswords

Test your knowledge of the Russian language, Russian history and society with these 22 challenging puzzles taken from the pages of Russian Life magazine. Most all the clues are in English, but you must fill in the answers in Russian. If you get stumped, of course all the puzzles have answers printed at the back of the book.
The Little Humpbacked Horse

The Little Humpbacked Horse

A beloved Russian classic about a resourceful Russian peasant, Vanya, and his miracle-working horse, who together undergo various trials, exploits and adventures at the whim of a laughable tsar, told in rich, narrative poetry.
Stargorod: A Novel in Many Voices

Stargorod: A Novel in Many Voices

Stargorod is a mid-sized provincial city that exists only in Russian metaphorical space. It has its roots in Gogol, and Ilf and Petrov, and is a place far from Moscow, but close to Russian hearts. It is a place of mystery and normality, of provincial innocence and Black Earth wisdom. Strange, inexplicable things happen in Stargorod. So do good things. And bad things. A lot like life everywhere, one might say. Only with a heavy dose of vodka, longing and mystery.
The Frogs Who Begged for a Tsar

The Frogs Who Begged for a Tsar

The fables of Ivan Krylov are rich fonts of Russian cultural wisdom and experience – reading and understanding them is vital to grasping the Russian worldview. This new edition of 62 of Krylov’s tales presents them side-by-side in English and Russian. The wonderfully lyrical translations by Lydia Razran Stone are accompanied by original, whimsical color illustrations by Katya Korobkina.
The Pet Hawk of the House of Abbas

The Pet Hawk of the House of Abbas

This exciting new trilogy by a Russian author – who has been compared to Orhan Pamuk and Umberto Eco – vividly recreates a lost world, yet its passions and characters are entirely relevant to the present day. Full of mystery, memorable characters, and non-stop adventure, The Pet Hawk of the House of Abbas is a must read for lovers of historical fiction and international thrillers.  
Russia Rules

Russia Rules

From the shores of the White Sea to Moscow and the Northern Caucasus, Russian Rules is a high-speed thriller based on actual events, terrifying possibilities, and some really stupid decisions.

Related Content

Eugenia Sokolskaya
EUGENIA SOKOLSKAYA came to the United States from Russia when she was four. In addition to a normal public-school education, she also received extensive instruction in Russian literature, film, and history from her parents. She is now a graduate of Swarthmore College and a freelance translator. In 2011, she was short-listed for the Rossica Young Translators Award.
Eugenia Sokolskaya
Happy Translation Day

In honor of International Translation Day (September 30), we demonstrate rather graphically the value of having a good, human translator.

September 30, 2013
Happy Translation Day

About Us

Russian Life is a publication of a 30-year-young, award-winning publishing house that creates a bimonthly magazine, books, maps, and other products for Russophiles the world over.

Latest Posts

Our Contacts

Russian Life
PO Box 567
Montpelier VT 05601-0567

802-223-4955